Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) was first observed in by Leadbetter and Burkland Intimal fibroplasia (renal FMD). Figure 1: Fibromuscular dysplasia of the right renal artery. The classic “beads on a string” appearance is typical of multifocal fibromuscular dysplasia, the most. Tratamiento de hipertensión vasculorrenal por displasia fibromuscular de is the technique of choice in cases of renal artery fibromuscular dysplasia; but there .

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Focal or tubular lesions on angiography allow determining the diagnosis when they are typical [ 28 ]. A careful prospective multicenter comparative study found that computed tomographic angiography and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography had reasonably good specificities for detecting renal artery stenosis due to FMD 92 and 84 percent, respectively but disappointing sensitivities 64 and 62 percent, respectively [ 38 ].

Antihypertensive drug treatment is indicated for patients with long-standing hypertension or in cases with persistent fibromjscular following revascularization. It is worth noting that FMD was first described in pairs of cousins and monozygous twins.

Fibromuscular dysplasia: what the radiologist should know: a pictorial review

This understanding is important because vasculitis and FMD can both have a severe clinical course, but require distinct treatments. Smoking could also be a risk factor.

FMD within the extremities may cause claudication or may be detectable by bruits. Prevalence of cerebral aneurysms in patients with fibromuscular dysplasia: FMD is classified according to the arterial wall layer primarily affected as follows: In cases with focal and tubular FMD stenoses, differential diagnoses are atherosclerotic or inflammatory artery diseases, vascular Ehlers-Danlos and Williams’ syndromes, and type 1 neurofibromatosis. Early descriptions of the disease used the terms fibromuscular hyperplasia or fibroplasia, but now the term fibromuscular dysplasia FMD is used.


Extracranial internal carotid and vertebral artery fibrodysplasia. Focal fibroplasia is described as long, narrow, irregular or smooth focal stenosis and can occur in any arterial bed.

Intima and adventitia are normal. This was properly controlled by treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, which was suspended due to acute impairment of renal function. In such situations, lesions may be discrete at the cervical level and typical at the renal level. Example of intimal FMD lesions.

Treatment is determined by factors such as age and disease location but routinely involve controlling hypertension, re-establishing vascular flow, clot prevention, and improving lifestyle such as diet, exercise and smoking cessation.

Fibromuscular dysplasia

Management of symptomatic carotid artery FMD Management of dissecting carotid artery FMD includes anticoagulation and, in cases with expanding or symptomatic pseudoanevrysm, percutaneous angioplasty or surgical repair [ 43 ]. FMD of the carotid or vertebral arteries can lead to a tear in the artery. Doppler ultrasound may be used in both the diagnosis and follow-up of FMD. A fibromuscklar component is suspected to exist, because the pathology affects primarily Caucasians.

Fibromuscular dysplasia of cervico-cephalic arteries with multiple dissections and a carotid-cavernous fistula. FMD may be complicated by renal artery dissection and kidney infarction with abrupt flank pain, hematuria and rapidly progressive hypertension [ 18 ].

Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. This treatment is useful when hypertension is difficult to control; patient is intolerant to the anti-hypertensive medications, non-complainant to fibrmouscular regime and patient loss of rrenal volume due to ischemia.

The association of FMD and carotid artery occlusion has been reported. A case of sudden death caused by fibromuscular dysplasia. Given the situation of resistant hypertension and the possibility of complications, the patient was offered surgical treatment with renal autotransplantation, as she was not a candidate for a vascular interventional procedure due to vascular anatomical abnormalities.


In fibromuscular dysplasia, the muscle and fibrous tissues displlasia your arteries thicken, causing the arteries to narrow. In a review combining the results of 4 studies including 3, asymptomatic patients who had undergone a renal angiography before kidney transplant donation, 4.

Generally, fibromuscular dysplasia isn’t preventable. Atherosclerotic lesions usually occur in a different setting. Fibrodysplastic popliteal aneurysm and dilatation of pedal artery.

Fibromuscular dysplasia could be caused by inadequate oxygen to the arteries that supply your blood vessel walls with blood, which causes the vessels to form abnormally.

Natural history of renal arterial disease. Flow chart illustrating imaging algorithms in case of suspected DFM for both the renal or cervico-encephalic level. Dysplasia of the media is subdivided into medial, perimedial, and hyperplastic medial FMD. This finding was confirmed by renal arteriography. The unifocal type most often affected young males, with tighter stenosis and more frequent downstream lesions [ 27 ].

Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD)

Later, a classification of FMD based on renal artery lesions was described in by Harrison and MacCormack [ 19 ], then revised by Stanley in [ 20 ].

Unlike atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis, FMD renal artery disease is rarely associated with high serum creatinine renxl. In our institution, the following protocols are currently used for both the initial diagnosis and follow-up:. Signs and symptoms of SCAD may include:. Bilateral fibromuscular dysplasia in identical twins. FMD can also lead to subarachnoid haemorrhage SAH because of the renla of an intracranial dissection or a rupture of intracranial aneurysms mainly due to the rupture of the internal elastic lamina in the medial types of FMD [ 17 ].